Everything You Need to Know About Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

1. What is COPD?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung condition that makes it hard to breathe. It includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and some kinds of asthma. The damage to your lungs from these diseases can’t be reversed, but treatment can help you manage the symptoms and feel better. In some cases, a lung transplant may be an option for the management of COPD.

2. Who will develop COPD?

Most people who have COPD are age 50 or older when they’re diagnosed, but you can have the disease at any age. Some children are born with chronic bronchiolitis, which sometimes leads to permanent damage as they get older. COPD is more common in men than women and current or former smokers.

3. What causes COPD?

Smoking is the most common cause of COPD, but it can also be caused by long-term exposure to air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust. Previous respiratory infections such as influenza may make you more likely to develop COPD later on too. If a member of your family has had COPD, this also puts you at a higher risk for developing the condition… Possible causes of COPD include: – Smoking – Long-term exposure to irritants – Air pollution

4. Symptoms of COPD Symptoms vary depending on the stage of the disease and whether it’s acute (new-onset) chronic (ongoing). In the early stages, symptoms may be more likely after you do a strenuous activity such as walking up a flight of stairs or engaging in sexual activity.

They include:

– Chronic cough that produces phlegm (sputum)

– Shortness of breath during physical activity, especially if the effort causes you to sweat and your heart to beat rapidly

— Coughing up blood or rust-colored mucus (hemoptysis) — Wheezing — Chest tightness or discomfort

— Difficulty sleeping due to shortness of breath

— Excessive tiredness for no apparent reason 5. COPD diagnosis Doctors use spirometry tests to diagnose COPD.

This test measures how much air your lungs can hold and how quickly air into and out of your lungs. People with COPD have a lower amount of air in their lungs than people without the disease. They also have less airflow.

6. Treatments for COPD Here are some things your doctor may recommend to manage COPD symptoms: 

Smoking cessation: One of the best things you can do for yourself is stop smoking. You can help increase your chances of quitting if you see a counselor about tobacco use, get medication, and work with an expert who specializes in helping people quit smoking. Talk to your doctor before starting any new medications or supplements.

While some alternative remedies have been studied for relieving COPD symptoms, there’s no proof that any works well.

– Prolonged-release bronchodilators

— These inhaled medications relax and open constricted airways to make it easier to breathe. They don’t work for everyone with COPD, but when used with other COPD medications, they can help improve lung function and reduce flare-ups of symptoms such as shortness of breath.

– Short-acting bronchodilators

— These inhaled medications open constricted airways to make it easier to breathe when you have sudden attacks or flare-ups. The difference between prolonged-release and short-acting bronchodilators is that the latter starts working faster and lasts a shorter period.

– Anti-inflammatory drugs

— Medications in this group block the production of chemicals that cause swelling and irritation in your lungs .

Corticosteroids are a type of anti-inflammatory drug. Corticosteroids are man-made drugs that work exactly like the cortisone your body produces. They may be used alone or with other COPD medications.

– Theophylline

— This oral medication improves lung function by relaxing constricted airways and opening breathing passages, making it easier to breathe.

Because of significant side effects, the medicine is usually reserved for treating moderate to severe disease when other treatments won’t work.– Oxygen therapy: Supplemental oxygen can help reduce shortness of breath and fatigue caused by low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia). It’s often used in COPD patients who also have chronic heart failure.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment:- A new study that focused on the use of Ebola-virus-related proteins to fight lung inflammation can potentially help treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a common type of progressive lung disease characterized by persistent obstruction to airflow.

The researchers used adenoviruses (which typically cause respiratory disease) as carriers for two proteins, one drawn from human herpes virus-6 and the other drawn from Ebola virus, which they injected into mice with COPD. They found that both viruses were taken up by immune cells in the lungs called macrophages. Both types of macrophages responded to the challenge posed by COPD but produced more immune cells to kill any foreign invaders.

After four weeks of treatment, the mice showed decreased inflammation and lungs with less scarring. The study was published in Science Translational Medicine.

In a second study, researchers injected into the airways of mice either H5N1 (avian) or H7N9 (bird flu) influenza viruses that had been modified to present the Ebola virus on its surface. The resulting immune response from the macrophages led to improved lung function in the animals. “We were surprised,” said Dr. Tarrant, who was not involved in the studies but offered a cautionary note: “When we get an infection, it’s usually because our bodies have lost control.”

Signs of COPD getting worse:

– shortness of breath while doing daily activities such as walking, climbing stairs, and exercising

– wheezing and coughing up mucus (phlegm) especially at night or in the morning when you wake up

– tightness in your chest that may feel like a band or belt squeezing too tightly around your ribs

COPD prevention:

– avoid smoke and other things that trigger COPD symptoms

– keep active and manage your weight because obesity can make COPD worse

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment:-

There is no cure for COPD. Usually, treatment aims to reduce the symptoms and maintain normal activities as long as possible. Treatment options include:

1. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, staying at a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly

2. Lung transplantation

3. Medication such as bronchodilators which open the airways by relaxing the muscles around them

4. Antibiotics or respiratory therapy to help clear mucus from the lungs 5. Oxygen therapy with a machine that makes it easier to breathe

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